Radio Wave Spectrum

The radio waves are distributed in 3Hz ~ 3000GHz. This spectrum is divided into 12 bands, as shown in the above table. The frequencies in each specific band present unique…

Propagation Path

Radio wave can be propagated from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna in many ways: perpendicular incidence wave or ground refraction wave, diffraction wave, troposphere reflection wave, ionosphere reflection…

SC-FDMA Receiver Benefits in LTE

DFT spreading of modulation symbols reduces PAPR In OFDM, each modulation symbols “sees” a single 15 kHz subcarrier (flat channel) In SC-FD-A, each modulation symbol “sees” a wider bandwidth (i.e….

BEAMFORMING in LTE

If some knowledge of the downlink channels of the different transmit antennas, (more specifically some knowledge of the relative channel phases) is available at the transmitter side, multiple transmit antennas…

Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave

When the radio wave propagates in the air, the electric field direction changes regularly. If the electric field direction of radio wave is vertical to the ground, the radio wave…

Receiver Design for LTE

The main objective of the study is to take action for the entire measurement receiver. However, many factors can affect the performance of the receiver, such sub-blocks of receipt must…

Inter-Carrier Interference for OFDM

The price for the optimum subcarrier spacing is the sensitivity of OFDM to frequency errors. If the receiver’s frequency is some fractions of the subcarrier spacing (subcarrier bandwidth) then we…