MOBILE TRANSITION INTO DIFFERENT STATES

  A mobile will in one of four states after it is powered on. Initialization State In the Initialization State, the mobile tunes to the first preferred RF frequency channel…

Network Architecture in LTE

Figure shows the network architecture of the Evolved Packet Core (EPC). The EPC consists of three main nodes: the Mobility Management Entity (MME), the Serving Gateway (SGW) and the Packet…

LTE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

The uppermost evolution track shown in Figure is that developed in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which is currently the dominant standards development group for mobile radio systems and…

PN Code Generation & Masking

  PN Code Generation PN Code Generation PN codes are generated from prime polynomials using modulo 2 arithmetic. The state machines generating these codes are very simple and consist of…

How Walsh Code Generate in CDMA

• Definition: Orthogonal functions have zero correlation.  Two binary sequences are orthogonal if the process of “XORing” them results in an equal number of 1’s and 0’s. Example:   0000…

Principle of Power control in LTE

Power control – already being applied in 2nd and 3rd generation networks – has high potential for improvement of the performance of mobile networks. Main benefits are: 1. It can…

Interference Margin for CDMA

In determining RF coverage in CDMA systems, the effect of interference generated from the serving cell as well as the neighboring cells must be considered, this is in contrast to…

Defination and work of Eb/No in CDMA

Eb/No corresponds to energy per bit over interference plus noise density for a given target FER (typical FER target is 1%). In digital communications, it is customary to designate one-sided…

CDMA Forward Channel Carrier Power

CDMA forward channel carrier power varies greatly depending on how many traffic channels are in use, the characteristics of the users voices, the Forward Power Control settings as requested by…

What is Antenna Beamwidth ?

Antenna beamwidth is measured in degrees between the half power points (3 dB) of the major lobe of the antenna, Beamwidth can be expressed in terms of azimuth (horizontal or…

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