Pulse shaping and spectrum in LTE

RF engineering is a trade off between: required radio spectrum (bandwidth), speed of data transmission (bit rates) and complexity of implementation. The pulse form used to modulate complex data symbols…

Types of Handover in LTE

The Handover is the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session fromone cell connected to the core network to another  It is transparent for the end user  It…

CDMA Protocol Stacks

The original release of the EIA/TIA-95-B standard defined the protocol messages and formats to be used in the CDMA system. This release is know as Revision 0 of the IS-95…

What is Interleaving

  If the voice signal is modulated and transmitted directly after channel coding, due to the condition changes in mobile communication channel, a deep of the fading will influence a…

How SIM works in GSM

The SIM card contains its internal memory, in which the data, personal and financial information as well as the identity for GSM / CDMA are stored. The SIM card stores…

Signal Fading

A transmitted signal changes as it travels to the receiver. The effect of these changes is commonly referred to as fading. The fading results from the superimposition of transmitted signals,…

Frequency Hopping

When the voice signal is transmitted after being processed and modulated, the frequency hopping technique will be used too, i.e. the transmission carrier varies constantly at different timeslots (of course,…

Burst in GSM

The Logical  Channel is used in time multiplex in a physical channel, which is categorized according to the types of messages transmitted in the physical channel. Different logical channels are…

Slow and Fast Frequency Hopping in GSM

Frequency hopping can be briefly defined as a sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between the mobile and the base station. In GSM, one carrier frequency is…

What is BSIC and its use in GSM

BSIC=NCC+BCC In GSM system, each BTS is allocated with a color code, which is called BSIC. MS can identify two cells with the same BCCH by the help of BSIC….

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