Phase Shift Keying (PSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) are both digital modulation techniques used in communication systems to transmit data by varying the phase of the carrier signal. The key difference between them lies in the number of phase shifts used to represent symbols and, consequently, the amount of information each symbol carries. Let’s explore the differences between PSK and QPSK in detail:

1. **PSK (Phase Shift Keying):**

**Phase Shifts:**- PSK is a digital modulation technique where the phase of the carrier signal is varied to represent symbols.
- In basic PSK, two different phase shifts are used: 0 and 180 degrees.

**Symbol Mapping:**- The two phase shifts are mapped to the binary values 0 and 1.
- Each symbol represents one bit of information.

**Constellation Diagram:**- The constellation diagram for PSK typically shows two points, each corresponding to one of the two phase shifts.
- The points are positioned at opposite ends of the constellation diagram.

**Data Rate:**- PSK transmits one bit per symbol, resulting in a data rate that is equal to the modulation rate.

2. **QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying):**

**Phase Shifts:**- QPSK extends PSK to represent two bits per symbol using four different phase shifts: 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees.
- Each symbol now carries two bits of information.

**Symbol Mapping:**- The four phase shifts are mapped to the possible combinations of two bits in a binary sequence.
- QPSK achieves a higher data rate compared to basic PSK.

**Constellation Diagram:**- The constellation diagram for QPSK shows four points, each corresponding to one of the four phase shifts.
- The points are typically positioned at the vertices of a square in the complex plane.

**Data Rate:**- QPSK transmits two bits per symbol, resulting in a data rate that is twice the modulation rate compared to basic PSK.

3. **Comparison:**

**Number of Phase Shifts:**- The fundamental difference between PSK and QPSK is the number of phase shifts used to represent symbols.
- PSK uses two phase shifts, while QPSK uses four phase shifts.

**Bits per Symbol:**- PSK transmits one bit per symbol, and QPSK transmits two bits per symbol.
- The increased number of phase shifts in QPSK allows for a higher data rate.

**Constellation Diagram:**- The constellation diagram for PSK shows two points, and for QPSK, it shows four points.
- QPSK achieves a denser packing of bits in the complex plane compared to basic PSK.

**Data Rate:**- QPSK achieves a higher data rate compared to PSK, as each symbol represents two bits instead of one.

4. **Applications:**

**PSK Applications:**- PSK is used in various communication systems, including digital modulation for audio signals and binary data transmission.

**QPSK Applications:**- QPSK is widely used in communication systems with higher data rate requirements, such as satellite communication, digital broadcasting, and wireless communication.

5. **Conclusion:**

**Key Differences:**- PSK uses two phase shifts to represent symbols, transmitting one bit per symbol.
- QPSK extends PSK by using four phase shifts to represent symbols, transmitting two bits per symbol.

**Trade-offs:**- The choice between PSK and QPSK depends on the specific requirements of the communication system, considering factors such as data rate, spectral efficiency, and susceptibility to noise.

In summary, PSK and QPSK are both digital modulation techniques within the PSK family. PSK uses two phase shifts to represent symbols, transmitting one bit per symbol, while QPSK uses four phase shifts to represent symbols, transmitting two bits per symbol. The selection between them depends on the specific needs of the communication system, taking into account factors such as data rate and spectral efficiency.