Frequency Range 1 (FR1) in 5G, also known as Sub-6 GHz, refers to the range of frequency bands below 6 GHz where a significant portion of 5G wireless communication operates. This frequency range is instrumental in providing wide-area coverage, reliable connectivity, and seamless integration with existing wireless networks, making it a foundational element of 5G deployment.
Several specific frequency bands fall within FR1, and their allocation varies across different regions globally. Some of the commonly used frequency bands in FR1 include:
- 600 MHz Band: This low-frequency band offers extensive coverage and good penetration through obstacles, making it suitable for providing 5G services in rural and urban areas.
- 700 MHz Band: Similar to the 600 MHz band, the 700 MHz band provides broad coverage and improved indoor penetration. It is often used to enhance coverage in suburban and rural environments.
- 2.5 GHz Band: Positioned in the mid-band spectrum, the 2.5 GHz band strikes a balance between coverage and capacity. It is suitable for urban and suburban deployments, offering higher data rates compared to lower frequency bands.
- 3.5 GHz Band (C-Band): This band is part of the mid-band spectrum and is widely adopted for 5G services. It strikes a balance between coverage and capacity, making it suitable for both urban and suburban deployments.
The characteristics of FR1 frequencies, including their ability to cover large areas and penetrate obstacles effectively, make them well-suited for providing a foundational layer of 5G connectivity. FR1 facilitates a seamless transition from existing 4G (LTE) networks, allowing for the coexistence and interoperability of different generations of wireless technologies.
In addition to traditional mobile broadband services, FR1 is crucial for enabling various 5G use cases, such as massive machine-type communication (mMTC) and ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC). The deployment of 5G services in FR1 ensures that users experience improved data rates, reduced latency, and enhanced network reliability across diverse geographic and demographic environments.
In summary, FR1 in 5G, encompassing frequency bands below 6 GHz, serves as the primary foundation for wide-area coverage, seamless integration with existing networks, and the delivery of diverse 5G services across different deployment scenarios.