Handover Process in LTE

The source eNB issues a HANDOVER REQUEST message to the target eNB passing the necessary information to prepare the HO on target side (UE X2 signaling context reference at source eNB, UE S1 EPC signaling context reference, target cell ID,…

What is EPS Bearer in LTE?

Eps bearer LTE EPS is a connection-oriented transmission network and, as such, it requires the establishment of a “virtual” connection between two endpoints (e.g. a UE and a PDN-GW) This virtual connection is called an “EPS Bearer” It provides a…

What is HLR and VLR and its function in GSM

Hlr and Vlr in Mobile Communication As From the Name VLR means Visitor Location Register and HLR means Home Location Register so HLR having all detail of subscriber and VLR having temporary details for mainly call processing related. Let’s check…

What is FADING, Its Type and Effect in RF design

What is Fading: – Fading is most important thing when you design any RF Design lets understand what is fading and how its effect. The communication between the base station and mobile station in mobile systems is mostly non-LOS. The…

Slow and Fast Frequency Hopping in GSM

Frequency hopping can be briefly defined as a sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between the mobile and the base station. In GSM, one carrier frequency is divided into eight time slots. Each time slot provides one…

What is BSIC and its use in GSM

BSIC=NCC+BCC In GSM system, each BTS is allocated with a color code, which is called BSIC. MS can identify two cells with the same BCCH by the help of BSIC. In network planning, effort should be made to make sure…

How Downlink Control Information or DCI in LTE?

Downlink Control Information or DCI in LTE The PDCCH carries Downlink Control Information or DCI to indicate the resource assignment in UL or DL for one RNTI. A DCI can convey various pieces of information, but the useful content depends…

Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) in LTE

What is pdcp in lte: – PDCP means Packet Data Convergence Protocol means it convert data at protocol level let’s check its function at user plane and control plane in details. The main services provided by the Packet Data Convergence Protocol…

Timing Advance in LTE

Timing advance lte what is timing advance in lte: -The eNB measures the required timing advance based on the received UE signal arrival time. It commands the UE to adjust the transmission time. This is performed on a per-need basis.…

Resource Block & Physical Resource Block in LTE

What is Resource block in lte? :- A resource block is the smallest unit of resources which allocated to a user. The resource block is 1 slot long in time and 180 kHz wide in frequency. Resource Block Multiplex multiple…

S1 interface – A Single Interface between LTE RAN and evolved packet core

The S1 interface is the interface between the LTE RAN and evolved packet core. S1 interface protocol stack is described in Figure. S1 performs the following functions: S1-UP (user plane) S1-CP (control plane) LTE S1-UP (user plane) The S1 user…

What is VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) and How tilting antenna

VSWR means voltage standing wave ratio which everyone knows but why it comes to calculate in Telecom? When BTS transmit any signal (LTE, CDMA, GSM, WCDMA anyone) then in radio wave transmit through cable and reach to antenna so what?…