Tag Archives: transmission

WCDMA Block Coding – CRC

Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they…

Burst in GSM

The LogicalĀ  Channel is used in time multiplex in a physical channel, which is categorized according to the types of messages transmitted in the physical channel. Different logical channels are used in transmission of different types of information between BS…

What is Frame and Channel in GSM

The major basic concept concerned with the radio path transmission of the GSM system is the burst sequence (simplified as Burst). It is a string of transmission units including more than 100 modulation bits. The burst sequence has a restricted…

DTX: Discontinuous Transmission

Actually, during the communication process, the mobile subscriber talks only 40% of the time and there is not much useful information transmitted during rest of the time. If all the information is transmitted to the network, it will not only…

What is Interleaving

If the voice signal is modulated and transmitted directly after channel coding, due to the condition changes in mobile communication channel, a deep of the fading will influence a successive string of bits and cause high bit error rate. If…

What is Channel Coding

To check and correct errors during the transmission, redundancy data and the information calculated from the source data are added to the stream so as to increase the bit rate. For the voice, the length of these codes is 456…

What is Speech Coding

The coding mode is called Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term Prediction (RPE-LTP). It works as follow: 8KHZ of sampling is performed first, then divided into frames with 20ms; every frame has 4 sub-frames; the duration of every sub-frame is 5ms; and…

Pulse shaping and spectrum in LTE

RF engineering is a trade off between: required radio spectrum (bandwidth), speed of data transmission (bit rates) and complexity of implementation. The pulse form used to modulate complex data symbols to the radio carrier frequency is the major element of…