Tag Archives: signal


How QPSK & BPSK Modulation in WCDMA?

A data-modulation scheme defines how the data bits are mixed with the carrier signal, which is always a sine wave. There are three basic ways to modulate a carrier signal

WCDMA Modulation

Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface. R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM The UTRAN air interface uses QPSK modulation in the downlink, although HSDPA may

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer

Correlation in WCDMA

How Correlation works in WCDMA ? Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. Identical and Orthogonal signals: Correlation is used to measure similarity of any two arbitrary signals. It

BEAMFORMING in LTE

If some knowledge of the downlink channels of the different transmit antennas, (more specifically some knowledge of the relative channel phases) is available at the transmitter side, multiple transmit antennas

Inter-Carrier Interference for OFDM

The price for the optimum subcarrier spacing is the sensitivity of OFDM to frequency errors. If the receiver’s frequency is some fractions of the subcarrier spacing (subcarrier bandwidth) then we

OFDM implementation in Detail

A typical OFDM transmitter is shown on the following figure. To reduce the amount of RF hardware required for OFDM the modulation process is split into two parts. A first