How to LTE Radio Air Interface?

The state-of-the-art design of the LTE air interface is characterised by OFDMA (DL) and SC-FDMA (UL) together with MIMO. The downlink modulation is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple…

Modulation in LTE

The 3G LTE uses 3 Quadrature Amplitude Modulations (QAMs) depending on the radio quality. QAM uses both the amplitude and the phase. LTE devices use QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM to…

WCDMA Modulation

Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface. R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM The UTRAN air interface uses QPSK modulation in the downlink, although HSDPA may…

Constellation in LTE

The QPSK is the most robust modulation. It can be represented by a constellation: The radius, R, represents the amplitude. The angle, ?, represents the phase. There are 1 amplitude…

Modulation Techniques in LTE

LTE devices use several modulation techniques to modulate data and control information. These modulation techniques include: QPSK (2 bits per symbol), 16QAM (4 bits per symbol), and 64QAM (6 bits…

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