Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Through the modulation, the signals will transfer…

WCDMA Block Coding – CRC

Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. Adding the…

Soft/Softer Handoff in CDMA

Multi-path combination in the BSC during soft handoffMulti-path combination in the BTS during softer handoffs       Soft handoff means that during the handoff of a mobile station at the coverage…

Forward Power Control in CDMA

Message Transmission Mode MS measures the frame quality and informs the base station to the result i.e. whether it is in the threshold or periodical  mode. Base station determines whether …

Scrambling (M) sequence in CDMA

  Two points are important here:  Maximum number of shift register (N)  Mask The period of out put sequence is 2N-1 bits Only sequence offset is change when the mask…

WCDMA Interleaving

How WCDMA Interleaving ? Effect Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay Channel coding works well…

What is Frame and Channel in GSM

The major basic concept concerned with the radio path transmission of the GSM system is the burst sequence (simplified as Burst). It is a string of transmission units including more…

DTX: Discontinuous Transmission

Actually, during the communication process, the mobile subscriber talks only 40% of the time and there is not much useful information transmitted during rest of the time. If all the…

What is Channel Coding

To check and correct errors during the transmission, redundancy data and the information calculated from the source data are added to the stream so as to increase the bit rate….

Defination and work of Eb/No in CDMA

Eb/No corresponds to energy per bit over interference plus noise density for a given target FER (typical FER target is 1%). In digital communications, it is customary to designate one-sided…

What is CDMA Time Diversity ?

Time diversity is a technique common to most digital transmission systems.  The Rake Receiver is used to find and demodulate multipath signals that are time delayed from the main signal….

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