How Walsh Code Generate in CDMA

• Definition: Orthogonal functions have zero correlation.  Two binary sequences are orthogonal if the process of “XORing” them results in an equal number of 1’s and 0’s. Example:   0000…

Affects of the Channel in LTE MIMO

To understand the impact of the channel, let’s assume that the base station receiver is facing many challenges in the same MIMO receiver that universal areas, but also must receive…

What is Correlation in CDMA ?

Correlation Is a Measure of How Well a Given Signal Matches a Desired Code, The Desired Code is Compared to the Given Signal at Various Test times. Correlation is key…

How Frequency Diversity works in CDMA?

Frequency diversity is inherent in a spread spectrum system.  A fade of the entire signal is less likely than with narrow band systems. Combats Fading, Caused by Multipath Fading Acts…

Function of Control plane protocol stacks in LTE

The control plane includes the application protocol. It also includes the signaling bearers for transporting the application protocol messages. The application protocol is used for setting up bearers in the…

What are SRNC and DRNC in WCDMA

SRNC and DRNC are concepts for a connected UE. The SRNC handles the connection to one UE, and may borrow radio resources of a certain cell from the DRNC. Drift…

Basic Modulation Techniques Wimax

Data bits modulate (modify) a carrier signal Basic modulation techniques: amplitude frequency phase. Data bits are represented over the transmission channel by SYMBOLS Symbol rate is expressed in Baud (Symbols…

How Header Compression in LTE

One of the main functions of the PDCP header compression is using Header Compression (ROHC) robust protocol defined by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) . In LTE, header compression is…

How Grouped UE Closed Subscriber

Closed Subscriber Group LTE supports the existence of cells which are only available for a limited set of EEC- A closed Subscriber Group (CSG). In order to prevent attempts to…

What is Principle for Frequency Planning in GSM

The actual frequency planning of certain areas is usually conducted with such areas divided into segments geographically, i.e., first divide a complex network into small networks. However, there should be…

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