Radio Wave Spectrum

The radio waves are distributed in 3Hz ~ 3000GHz. This spectrum is divided into 12 bands, as shown in the above table. The frequencies in each specific band present unique…

Signal Fading

A transmitted signal changes as it travels to the receiver. The effect of these changes is commonly referred to as fading. The fading results from the superimposition of transmitted signals,…

Burst in GSM

The Logical  Channel is used in time multiplex in a physical channel, which is categorized according to the types of messages transmitted in the physical channel. Different logical channels are…

Handover Process in LTE

The source eNB issues a HANDOVER REQUEST message to the target eNB passing the necessary information to prepare the HO on target side (UE X2 signaling context reference at source…

Spread Spectrum Concept

Dsss – Direct sequence spread spectrum DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum is a spread spectrum technology in which original data is expand using PN code randomly to reduce noise…

How LTE Network Architecture?

The LTE/EPC architecture is driven by the goal to optimize the system for packet data transfer. Remember that There are no circuit switched components in LTE/EPC. There is a new…

Why LTE Require in Telecom ?

Higher data rates: Obviously this is a general requirement requested from any new system. Quality of service, Lower delay: To enable true convergence between real-time and non-real-time services quality of…

BENEFITS OF LTE/EPC

Fully packet-oriented mobile broadband network providing: – Peak data rates of 100 Mbps (DL) and 50 Mbps (UL) – Very low latency – Seamless and lossless handover – Sophisticated QoS…

EPS Bearer Terminology in LTE

EPS Bearer Terminology in LTE   Quality of service GBR bearer: Guaranteed bit rate Non-GBR bearer: No guaranteed bit rate Establishment time Default bearer Established when UE connects to PDN…

CDMA Channel Frequencies & Calculation

The 850MHz CDMA band is most popularly used all over the world.This band as mentioned in the previous slide works between       824-849MHz Used for the Reverse link communication      …

Functionally of EPC in LTE

EPC ( Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) Functionally the EPC is equivalent to the packet switched domain of the existing 3GPP networks. EPC consist of:–MME (Mobility Management Entity)–SAE GW…

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