Pulse shaping and spectrum in LTE

RF engineering is a trade off between: required radio spectrum (bandwidth), speed of data transmission (bit rates) and complexity of implementation. The pulse form used to modulate complex data symbols…

How to LTE Radio Air Interface?

The state-of-the-art design of the LTE air interface is characterised by OFDMA (DL) and SC-FDMA (UL) together with MIMO. The downlink modulation is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple…

How Frame Structure in Wimax ?

The physical frame includes the downlink sub-frame, uplink sub-frame, TTG, and RTG. The physical frame length and the respective duration of downlink sub-frame and uplink sub-frame are broadcast by the…

Which Types of Antennas Used in WIMAX ?

WiMAX antennas, just like the antennas for car radio, cell phone, FM radio, or TV, are designed to optimize performance for a given application. The figure above illustrates the three…

How Modulation-QPSK in CDMA ?

     In an actual application, the system implements the modulation in this way:  as shown above, I and Q channel sequences in the figure represent two channels of cyclic PN…

Types of Handover in LTE

The Handover is the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session fromone cell connected to the core network to another  It is transparent for the end user  It…

Which Cell Parameters needs to Obtain in LTE?

To provide the most critical information to the UEs, the eNodeB uses the BCH channel The information is sent on pre-defined time-frequency resources. This information is organized into different information…

Ranging in Wimax

The initial range is the process of estimating the distance or propagation time between a transmitter and a receiver. Area information can be used to assist in setting operating parameters…

Propagation Path

Radio wave can be propagated from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna in many ways: perpendicular incidence wave or ground refraction wave, diffraction wave, troposphere reflection wave, ionosphere reflection…

What is WiMAX?

WiMAX is a coined term or acronym meaning worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX). What WiMAX is however at its heart is a standards initiative. Its purpose is to ensure…

Wi-Fi Systems

In addition to 3G, Wi-Fi based-systems may be used to provide broadband wireless. Wi-Fi is based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards and is primarily a local area networking…

Burst in GSM

The Logical  Channel is used in time multiplex in a physical channel, which is categorized according to the types of messages transmitted in the physical channel. Different logical channels are…

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