Global Positioning System – GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a radio-navigation system that employs RF transmitters in 24 satellites. The satellite configuration when completed will guarantee that a GPS receiver located anywhere on…

How Antenna Downtilting selection for cdma ?

Downtilting is the method of effectively adjusting the vertical radiation pattern of the antenna to increase the amount of power radiated downwards. Downtilting can be used to increase the amount…

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio and Return Loss

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is another parameter used to describe an antenna performance. It deals with the impedance match of the antenna feed point to…

Vocoder: A Voice Compression in CDMA

When we talk, we pause between syllables and words. CDMA takes advantage of these pauses in speech activity. Analog to digital conversion The voice signal is converted to a digital…

Definition of Forward Channel in CDMA

There are Four channel in Forward direction in cdma. PILOT CHANNEL (1) SYNC CHANNEL (1) FORWARD TRAFFIC + PAGING CHANNELS (62) PAGING CHANNELS ( MAXIMUM 7) PILOT CHANNEL PILOT SIGNALS…

CDMA Spatial Diversity

Diversity Reception: Multiple Antennas at Base Station Each Antenna is Affected by Multipath Differently Due to Their Different Location Allows Selection of the Signal Least Affected by Multipath Fading If…

Vocoders and its Type in CDMA

Vocoders Human voice is made up of a combination of voiced and unvoiced sounds Vocoders exploit these properties of speech production mechanism Vocoders do not respond to music, non-human sounds…

CDMA Variable Rate Speech Coder

CDMA takes advantage of quiet times during speech to raise capacity.  A variable rate vocoder is used; for the original vocoder the channel is a 9,600 bps when the user…

Open Loop Power Control in CDMA

The Open Loop Power Control require in cdma due to following reason. Assumes Loss is Similar on Forward paths and Reverse Paths Receive Power + Transmit Power = -73 All…

How Power Control in Reverse Link in CDMA ?

Power Control Required in Reverse link cdma due to following reason. Maximum System Capacity is Achieved if: All Mobiles are Power Controlled to the Minimum Power for Acceptable Signal Quality…

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