MIMO Principles

MIMO is effectively radio antenna technology because multiple antennas are used at the transmitter and receiver to allow a variety of signal paths to transmit the data, with separate paths…

Propagation Path

Radio wave can be propagated from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna in many ways: perpendicular incidence wave or ground refraction wave, diffraction wave, troposphere reflection wave, ionosphere reflection…

Frequency Hopping

When the voice signal is transmitted after being processed and modulated, the frequency hopping technique will be used too, i.e. the transmission carrier varies constantly at different timeslots (of course,…

CDMA System Time

For both mobiles and base station in direct sequence CDMA must be synchronized. In the IS-95A system, synchronization is based on the Global Positioning Satellite system time. The CDMA system…

What is WiMAX?

WiMAX is a coined term or acronym meaning worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX). What WiMAX is however at its heart is a standards initiative. Its purpose is to ensure…

Wi-Fi Systems

In addition to 3G, Wi-Fi based-systems may be used to provide broadband wireless. Wi-Fi is based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards and is primarily a local area networking…

Gigabit LTE

Gigabit LTE is an important springboard for mobile 5G data connectivity. It contains a number of building blocks for the new network. Gigabit LTE is an advanced form of LTE,…

Burst in GSM

The Logical  Channel is used in time multiplex in a physical channel, which is categorized according to the types of messages transmitted in the physical channel. Different logical channels are…

Handover Process in LTE

The source eNB issues a HANDOVER REQUEST message to the target eNB passing the necessary information to prepare the HO on target side (UE X2 signaling context reference at source…

What is EPS Bearer in LTE?

Eps bearer LTE EPS is a connection-oriented transmission network and, as such, it requires the establishment of a “virtual” connection between two endpoints (e.g. a UE and a PDN-GW) This…

Slow and Fast Frequency Hopping in GSM

Frequency hopping can be briefly defined as a sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between the mobile and the base station. In GSM, one carrier frequency is…

Google serves cookies to analyze traffic to this site and for serving personalized ads. Learn more