Codeword, layer, and precoding in LTE

Terms codeword, layer, and precoding have been taken to refer specifically to LTE signals and processing. The figure shows the processing steps to which they relate. The terms used in the following ways: Codeword: codeword represents the user data before…

Forward Traffic Channel of CDMA

Forward Traffic Channel is used to Transmit Data and Signaling Information. Symbol repetition makes symbol streams at different rates adapted to those at the rate of 19.2k. The original symbol stream at  the rate of 19.2Kbps will not be repeated,…

Downlink Power control in LTE

The eNodeB determines the downlink transmit energy per resource element (lte epre). Downlink cell-specific reference-signal (RS) lte epre is constant across the downlink system bandwidth and constant across all subframes until different cell-specific RS power information is received. The downlink RS…

LTE MIMO Types of Inputs and Outputs

LTE MIMO “input” and “output” are used for medium between transmitters and receivers, including both RF components – known as the “channel”. Thus, the base station with two transmitters provides two inputs to the channel, “mi” page, and the handset…

BCH,CCCH and DCCH Channel of GSM

BCH (Broadcast Channels) BCCH(Broadcast Control Channels) Downlink Only. Broadcast information of the serving cell (System Information). Transmitted on timeslot zero of BCCH carrier. Read only by idle mobile at least once every 30 secs. SCH (Synchronization Channels) Downlink Only Carries…

What is Polarization, Gain and Power rating in LTE Antenna

Antenna Gain Antenna gain is the ratio of the maximum radiation in a specified direction, a reference antenna in the same direction for the same power input. Usually, this increase links for isotropic antenna or dipole in free space half…

OFDM implementation in Detail

A typical OFDM transmitter is shown on the following figure. To reduce the amount of RF hardware required for OFDM the modulation process is split into two parts. A first part uses the inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) or one…

What is AMC & its Algorithm in LTE

The effective Eb/No and hence the spectral efficiency depend on BLER. However there are QoS requirements which also have to be considered. Taking both into account leads to a target BLER. AMC is in use in order to tune BLER…

What is Smart Antennas in LTE

What is smart antenna? Smart antennas are antenna arrays with intelligent signal processing algorithms that identify spatial signal signatures, such as the direction of arrival of the signal, and calculate the following beamforming vectors and locate the beam antenna on the…

Definition and Effect of Reflection, Diffraction, Scattering and Multipath Propagation in RF Engineering

Reflection Diffraction and Scattering in wireless communication When any new site has been planned then it should be such a way the effect of Reflection, Diffraction, Scattering and Multipath should be Balance. Reflection in wireless communication Reflections Occurs when a wave…

List of LTE Equipment Related Parameters

LTE parameters Equipment related parameters include the base station, antenna, and terminal. The link budget parameters vary with the base stations, antennas, and terminals of different vendors. These parameters affect the link budget result. As a result, the downlink is unaffected…

Gigabit LTE

Gigabit class lte what is gigabit class lte? :- Gigabit class lte is advance version of LTE which download speed is up to 1GBps using Carrier Aggregation, 4×4 MIMO and 256-QAM techniques. Gigabit class lte also uses LTE-U / LAA technology.…