What is the difference between LTE and VOLTE?

What is VOLTE:- Volte (voice over lte) refers to voice calls made through a 4G LTE network rather than traditional calls made using csfb (circuit-switched fall-back), a system that switches from 4g back to 2g or 3g technology before connecting…

LTE Frame Structure and Resource Block Architecture

LTE Frame Structure The figure below shows the LTE frame structure under Time division mode (TDD) Type 2 and Frequency Division mode (FDD) Type 1. Differences in LTE Frame Structure Main differences in LTE Frame Structure between the two modes…

What is MNC and MCC for GSM

MCC MNC – Telecom What is mcc and mnc :- Both are very first question in your mind when you start learning on telecom its basic behind numbering system in telecom lets understand each one in details. MNC full form in…

What is Burst in GSM and Burst Types in GSM

The Below a GSM burst. It consists of several different elements. These elements are as below: This is the area in which the speech, data or control information is held. Side effects Guard Period The BTS and MS can only…

Cell selection and reselection in LTE UE

To get service from the selected PLMN, the UE performs two types of  procedures: LTE cell selection and LTE cell reselection CELL SELECTION in LTE Upon PLMN selection, LTE UE uses “cell selection” for fast cell searching to camp on.…

How Authentication Center (AUC) works in GSM

When we talk about Mobile Business then its worst useful without authentication means to make Network as business all user required to be authenticate lets understand how authentication done in gsm. Authentication Center (AUC) The AUC is a processor system,…

Network Color Code NCC for GSM

NCC is a part of BSIC. MS uses it to distinguish adjacent BTS that belong to different GSM PLMN. NCC is composed of 3 bits, with the range of 0 to 7. NCC and BCC together form the base station…

State of RRC in LTE

RRC uses the following states: RRC_Idle: •The UE is not connected. There is no radio link. •The network knows that the UE is present on the network and is able to reach it in case of incoming call. •The UE…

Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) in GSM

SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel) Uplink and Downlink. Used for call setup, authentication, ciphering location update and SMS. SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel) Downlink and Uplink. Used to transfer signal while MS have ongoing conversation on traffic or while SDCCH…

How Forward Link Channel Format in CDMA

The Base Station transmitter signal is, however, the composite of many channels (with a minimum of four). The Pilot channel is unmodulated (Walsh code 0); it consists of only the final spreading sequence (short sequences). The Pilot channel is used…

BCH ,CBCH and CCCH works in GSM

Broadcast Channels (BCH) Frequency correction channel (FCCH) the “lighthouse” of a BTS Synchronization channel (SCH) PLMN/base identifier of a BTS plus synchronization information (frame number)  Broadcast control channel (BCCH) to transmit system information 1-4, 7-8 (differs in GSM 900, GSM…

Reverse Link Traffic Channel Physical Layer in CDMA

The CDMA reverse link uses a different coding scheme to transmit data. Unlike the forward link, the reverse link cannot support a pilot channel for synchronous demodulation (since each mobile station would need its own pilot channel). The lack of…