Pulse shaping and spectrum in LTE

RF engineering is a trade off between: required radio spectrum (bandwidth), speed of data transmission (bit rates) and complexity of implementation. The pulse form used to modulate complex data symbols…

How Many CODES in CDMA?

There Are Three Codes in CDMA PN Long Code,PN Short Code & Walsh Code. PN Long Code The Long Code is a PN sequence that is 242 – 1 bits…

Which Types of Antennas Used in WIMAX ?

WiMAX antennas, just like the antennas for car radio, cell phone, FM radio, or TV, are designed to optimize performance for a given application. The figure above illustrates the three…

How Modulation-QPSK in CDMA ?

     In an actual application, the system implements the modulation in this way:  as shown above, I and Q channel sequences in the figure represent two channels of cyclic PN…

Types of Handover in LTE

The Handover is the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session fromone cell connected to the core network to another  It is transparent for the end user  It…

Which Cell Parameters needs to Obtain in LTE?

To provide the most critical information to the UEs, the eNodeB uses the BCH channel The information is sent on pre-defined time-frequency resources. This information is organized into different information…

CDMA Protocol Stacks

The original release of the EIA/TIA-95-B standard defined the protocol messages and formats to be used in the CDMA system. This release is know as Revision 0 of the IS-95…

Modulation in LTE

The 3G LTE uses 3 Quadrature Amplitude Modulations (QAMs) depending on the radio quality. QAM uses both the amplitude and the phase. LTE devices use QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM to…

Radio Wave Spectrum

The radio waves are distributed in 3Hz ~ 3000GHz. This spectrum is divided into 12 bands, as shown in the above table. The frequencies in each specific band present unique…

What is Interleaving

  If the voice signal is modulated and transmitted directly after channel coding, due to the condition changes in mobile communication channel, a deep of the fading will influence a…

How SIM works in GSM

The SIM card contains its internal memory, in which the data, personal and financial information as well as the identity for GSM / CDMA are stored. The SIM card stores…

Ranging in Wimax

The initial range is the process of estimating the distance or propagation time between a transmitter and a receiver. Area information can be used to assist in setting operating parameters…

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