Why link budget analysis in GSM

Why link budget analysis in GSM, uplink and downlink paths, signal to noise ratio, maximum allowable path loss, base station and mobile, link budget.

When we talk about GSM Rf planning then first thing into mind is Link Budget,here i write about why link Budget analysis in GSM

Link budget analysis provides:

  • Coverage design thresholds
  • EIRP needed to balance the path
  • Maximum allowable path loss
  • It is important that the uplink and downlink paths be balanced, otherwise not enough signal will survive the transmission process to achieve the required signal to noise ratio (SNR) or the bit-error-rate (BER).
  • Path imbalance results from the facts that the gains and losses in the uplink and downlink paths are not the same.
  • The calculations have to be done separately on the uplink and the downlink.

The RF Path



  • Base station and Mobile receiver Sensitivity Parameters
  • Minimum acceptable Signal to Noise ratio
  • Environmental / Thermal Noise
  • Receiver Noise figure
  • Antenna gain at the base station and mobile station.
  • Hardware Losses (Cable , Connectors, Combiners, Duplexers etc)
  • Target Coverage reliability.
  • Fade margins.


  • Base station ERP
  • Maximum allowable path loss
  • Cell size estimates
  • Cell count estimates

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