## How PLMN Selection in GSM

When the mobile is switched on it will select the registered PLMN in the mobile if there exist one. If there is no registered GSM PLMN or the registered PLMN…

## What is Speech Coding

The coding mode is called Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term Prediction (RPE-LTP). It works as follow: 8KHZ of sampling is performed first, then divided into frames with 20ms; every frame has…

## Fade Margin Calculation in GSM

As previously I write about fading effect in GSM here I write about Fade Margin Calculation in GSM. Cell area probability (CAP ) is the percentage of the cell area…

## Site Selection Criteria in GSM

Site selection is based on a number of criteria. It may not be possible to satisfy all these criteria at the same time, but it is important to select the…

## Antenna Installation and Downtilting

When we talk about antenna then we need to understand about antenna installation and specially about antenna downtilting.lets assume that antenna installed then how you can change its position. Its…

## What is Principle for Frequency Planning in GSM

The actual frequency planning of certain areas is usually conducted with such areas divided into segments geographically, i.e., first divide a complex network into small networks. However, there should be…

## How 1x 3 or 1x1Reuse Patterns in Frequency Planing

Isolated reuse technology refers to 1*3 or 1*1 reuse with short reuse distance and severe interferences, radio frequency hopping technology has to be adopted. The aggregate of hopping frequencies needs…

## GSM Underlaid Overlaid Frequency Allocation and Configuration

Underlaid OverlaidĀ  Frequency Allocation In the Overlaid/Underlaid technology, all frequency carriers in the cell are divided into two parts, of which the TRX power of some frequency carriers is lowered,…

## Advantages of Multi layer frequency Reuse Pattern

Capacity increase when reuse density is multiplied: Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency) Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12 Network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000…

## Multi layer Frequency Reuse Pattern in GSM

Multi-layer reuse pattern technology means to divide the whole frequency resources into different subgroups according to specific principles. Each subgroup allocates frequency carriers to every cell by means of different…

## 4*3 Frequency Reuse in GSM

The basic frequency reuse mode of GSM is 4*3 frequency reuse. It is the basic of other frequency reuse modes, we also call it regular frequency reuse model. “4” represents…

## Requirement for Interference and Carrier to Interference Ratio in GSM

GSM is an interference restricted system. Carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I), also called interference protection ratio, refers to the ratio of all useful signals to all useless signals. In GSM system, this…