LTE

Here we discus about LTE Technology, detail on 4G and How to LTE.

Handover Process in LTE

The source eNB issues a HANDOVER REQUEST message to the target eNB passing the necessary information to prepare the HO on target side (UE X2 signaling context reference at source eNB, UE S1 EPC signaling context reference, target cell ID,…

What is EPS Bearer in LTE?

Eps bearer LTE EPS is a connection-oriented transmission network and, as such, it requires the establishment of a “virtual” connection between two endpoints (e.g. a UE and a PDN-GW) This virtual connection is called an “EPS Bearer” It provides a…

How Downlink Control Information or DCI in LTE?

Downlink Control Information or DCI in LTE The PDCCH carries Downlink Control Information or DCI to indicate the resource assignment in UL or DL for one RNTI. A DCI can convey various pieces of information, but the useful content depends…

Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) in LTE

What is pdcp in lte: – PDCP means Packet Data Convergence Protocol means it convert data at protocol level let’s check its function at user plane and control plane in details. The main services provided by the Packet Data Convergence Protocol…

Timing Advance in LTE

Timing advance lte what is timing advance in lte: -The eNB measures the required timing advance based on the received UE signal arrival time. It commands the UE to adjust the transmission time. This is performed on a per-need basis.…

Resource Block & Physical Resource Block in LTE

What is Resource block in lte? :- A resource block is the smallest unit of resources which allocated to a user. The resource block is 1 slot long in time and 180 kHz wide in frequency. Resource Block Multiplex multiple…

S1 interface – A Single Interface between LTE RAN and evolved packet core

The S1 interface is the interface between the LTE RAN and evolved packet core. S1 interface protocol stack is described in Figure. S1 performs the following functions: S1-UP (user plane) S1-CP (control plane) LTE S1-UP (user plane) The S1 user…

What is VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) and How tilting antenna

VSWR means voltage standing wave ratio which everyone knows but why it comes to calculate in Telecom? When BTS transmit any signal (LTE, CDMA, GSM, WCDMA anyone) then in radio wave transmit through cable and reach to antenna so what?…

What is the difference between LTE and VOLTE?

What is VOLTE:- Volte (voice over lte) refers to voice calls made through a 4G LTE network rather than traditional calls made using csfb (circuit-switched fall-back), a system that switches from 4g back to 2g or 3g technology before connecting…

LTE Frame Structure and Resource Block Architecture

LTE Frame Structure The figure below shows the LTE frame structure under Time division mode (TDD) Type 2 and Frequency Division mode (FDD) Type 1. Differences in LTE Frame Structure Main differences in LTE Frame Structure between the two modes…

Cell selection and reselection in LTE UE

To get service from the selected PLMN, the UE performs two types of  procedures: LTE cell selection and LTE cell reselection CELL SELECTION in LTE Upon PLMN selection, LTE UE uses “cell selection” for fast cell searching to camp on.…

State of RRC in LTE

RRC uses the following states: RRC_Idle: •The UE is not connected. There is no radio link. •The network knows that the UE is present on the network and is able to reach it in case of incoming call. •The UE…